Spatial Database Tips and Tricks

Join Spatial Tables from a Map Click

If you have installed the PostGIS database, the Medford data, and Tomcat, you should be able to view the functioning example here:

The medford.taxlots table has lots of information, but lacks a “zoning” column. What affect does zoning have on property values? The property value information is in the tax lots table, and the zoning information is in the medford.zoning table.

  Table "medford.zoning"
  Column   |         Type
-----------+-----------------------
objectid   | integer
cityzone   | character varying(10)
zoning     | character varying(10)
revdate    | date
finord     | character varying(20)
filenum    | character varying(20)
acres      | numeric
misc       | character varying(50)
shape_leng | numeric
perimeter  | numeric
area       | numeric
shape_le_1 | numeric
shape_area | numeric
hectares   | numeric
the_geom   | geometry

We will join together the zoning and tax lot tables to generate a report about property values for each zoning category.

The interface still looks like the previous example. We can click, we can select a radius of calculation, and the result is put into an iframe below the map.

_images/click-join1.png

We have changed our overlay layer from the tax lots and buildings to the zoning types, which also include a label from which you can read the zoning code. The codes seem a little cryptic at first, but some rules of thumb clarify them:

  • SFR-* = Single-family residence variants
  • MFR-* = Multi-family residence variants
  • C-* = Commercial variants
  • I-* = Industrial variants

The Javascript side of the example remains the same: a click is transformed into a URL and passed to the server for evaluation.

function queryZoning(e) {
  // Read the map coordinates from the click event
  var lonlat = map.getLonLatFromViewPortPx(e.xy);
  // Read the radius we are going to use
  var radius = document.getElementById("radius").value;
  // Construct the query URL
  var url = "03-click-join.jsp";
  url += "?lon=" + lonlat.lon;
  url += "&lat=" + lonlat.lat;
  url += "&radius=" + radius;
  // Load the URL into an iframe
  document.getElementById("query").src = url;
}

Similarly the script side remains the same: evaluate a SQL query based on the URL input parameters and return the results as HTML for display.

The URL sent by the client looks like this:

The SQL query is where all the work happens.

select
  count(*) as num_lots,
  round(sum(st_area(taxlot.the_geom))::numeric/43560,1) || ' acres' as total_lot_area,
  zone.zoning as zoning,
  '$' || sum(taxlot.landvalue)::integer as total_land_value,
  '$' || (sum(taxlot.landvalue) / sum(st_area(taxlot.the_geom)))::integer || ' / sqft' as value_per_ft
from
  medford.taxlots taxlot join medford.zoning zone
  on (st_contains(zone.the_geom, st_centroid(taxlot.the_geom)))
where
  st_dwithin(
    taxlot.the_geom,
    st_transform(
      st_setsrid(
        st_makepoint(${param.lon},${param.lat}),
        4326),
      2270),
    ${param.radius}
  )
group by zone.zoning
order by total_lot_area desc

Note that in the output clauses, many of the output columns are wrapped in sum() functions. That’s because this is a summary query, we aren’t returning all the selected rows, we’re summarizing them. The columns that aren’t summarized are the ones we will be using for grouping.

The only really new element here is the join clause. The join syntax is standard, but we are using spatial functions to define the join criteria instead of the usual database keys:

medford.taxlots taxlot join medford.zoning zone
on (
  st_contains(zone.the_geom, st_centroid(taxlot.the_geom))
  )

We wanted to join the tax lots to the zones, so why are we running ST_Centroid() on our tax lots? Because the boundaries of the tax lots and the zoning areas might not line up exactly. That means a test on containment of lots in zones might return too few results; or, a test on intersection of lots with zones might return too many results.

_images/click-join2.png

By converting the tax lot polygons to point proxies, we can ensure that each lot falls within only one zoning area.

_images/click-join3.png

So our join finds tax lots who centers are within zoning areas. That provides us access to the zoning information at the tax lot level, which is enough to create a summary including both valuation (tax lot attribute) and zone (zoning attribute).

The usual ST_DWithin() clause is in the WHERE block of the SQL, to restrict the results to our query radius.

where
  st_dwithin(
    taxlot.the_geom,
    st_transform(
      st_setsrid(
        st_makepoint(${param.lon},${param.lat}),
        4326),
      2270),
    ${param.radius}
  )
group by zone.zoning
order by total_lot_area desc

The group by clause is what makes our table a summary “by zoning” rather than a summary of all the records in the result set.

The final result provides an answer that would not be available without spatial processing – a valuation table organized by zoning category.

_images/click-join4.png


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